Leviticus 1-6: Offerings

Chapters 1-6 of Leviticus detail the different types of offerings the Israelites can give to God. These offerings include the burnt, peace, meat, sin, and trespass offerings. Each of these serve a different purpose and required a different gift for God. Some where for voluntary praise and thanks, while others were required on specified occasions.
Photocredit: FreeImages.com/Felipe Lopez

Introduction

Chapters 1-6 of Leviticus detail the different types of offerings the Israelites can give to God. These offerings include the burnt, peace, meat, sin, and trespass offerings. Each of these serve a different purpose and required a different gift for God. Some where for voluntary praise and thanks, while others were required on specified occasions.
Top

Burnt Offerings

Burnt offerings were voluntary and required the sacrifice of an animal. The animal could be of the herd (cattle), of the flock (sheep or goats), or of the fowl (turtledoves). With the exception of the hide (see Leviticus 7:8), animals from burnt offerings were totally consumed at the altar. The fact that the entirety of the animal was given symbolized complete dedication of the offerer to God. These offerings were to be brought to the tabernacle door.

Type Animal Specifications
Herd Bull
  • Male
  • Without Blemish
Flock Sheep or Goat
  • Male
  • Without Blemish
Fowl Turtledove or Young Pigeons

For offerings of the herd or of the flock, the offerer was to place his hand on the head of the sacrifice, symbolically transferring the guilt and sin of the offerer upon the animal. This was a foreshadowing of Jesus who took upon Himself the sins of all mankind at the cross. After laying his had on the animal, the offerer was to kill the sacrifice, and the priests were to sprinkle the blood around the altar. The hid was to be removed and given to the priest. The animal was to be cut into pieces, and laid upon the altar. The head was placed atop the body parts, and the fat placed at the very top. Both the inner parts and the legs were to be washed in water before being burned. God specifies that a bull was to be brought to the door of the tabernacle but an offering of the flock was to be killed on the North side of the the tabernacle.

Offering of the fowl was slightly different since birds are smaller and contain less blood. As such they were to wring the neck of bird then wring the blood beside the altar. The offerer is not told to place his hands upon the head of the bird, though considering the offerer would likely have to carry the bird to the priest, it is possible this sufficed as the transferal of sins. Birds were not to be cut or split into pieces before being placed on the altar, probably because they were much smaller and could fit onto the altar in one piece. Since fowl were numerous and much cheaper than sheep, goats, or cattle, the allowance of fowl as an offering was one of God's many provisions to ensure the poor were included in His plan for salvation.
Top

Meat Offerings

Contrary to what one would think, meat offerings required neither flesh nor blood; they were also known as grain offerings, which makes more sense in our language today. These offerings were to be of fine flour with oil poured upon it, and frankincense place upon it as well. In place of touching the head of the animal, a handful of the flour was to be taken. This handful was to be burned by the priests, and whatever was left over was to be kept for themselves. If the offering had been baked, it was no to contain leaven. Baked offerings were to be unleavened cakes or wafers anointed with oil. If the offering were baked, i was to be separated.

God forbade the inclusion of leaven or honey in any offering burned in the fire. These could be offered as firstfruits (discussed later in Leviticus), but they could not be burned. It is speculated that God forbade these from being burned on the altar because leaven symbolized evil and honey was often offered to pagan gods.[1] Mark 5:15, 1 Corinthians 5:6-8, and Galatians 5:9 all discuss the evils of leaven (or yeast) and how it spreads, seeming to confirm that leaven is not allowed as a burnt offering. In contrast, salt was to be offered with every offering. Green ears of corn, which could be offered as a firstfruit, were to be dried by the fire before given. A portion of the oil was to be placed on the offering and the offering was to be burned with all the frankincense upon it.
Top

Peace Offerings

Though peace offerings could be male or female, they still had to be without blemish. All of the fat, both kidneys, and the caul above the liver were to be removed for offerings. The fat and organs were to be burned upon the altar by Aaron's sons (the priests). Lambs required the addition of the rump from the backbone. The blood of the sacrifice was to be sprinkled on the altar. God declared blood off limits from man's diet after the flood, but He reiterates the point here with the addition prohibition of fat. These two parts of the body belonged to God, and thus, God commands the Israelites to refrain from eating such things as a perpetual statute.
Top

Sin Offerings

Sin offerings were given by those who ignorantly sinned against God's commandment; note that while there was a trespass offering for those who knowingly trespass against someone, no provision was given for those who knowingly committed a sin. It is possible that this is because most sins that people would purposefully commit (murder, blasphemy, etc.) carried a death sentence as punishment. This offering allowed for the repenting sinner to be forgiven just as calling upon the blood of Jesus allows for repenting Christians to be forgiven.
Top

Priests

The priests were to sacrifice a bull, and its blood was to be sprinkled before the vail seven times, as well as, on the horns of the altar of incense. The remaining blood was to be poured by the altar of burnt sacrifices. Like with the peace offering, the fat, kidneys, and caul were to be burned. The skin and flesh of the bull were to be carried to a clean place outside the tabernacle grounds and burned there; this was also were ashes were poured out. Applying the blood to the furnishings represented purification of the sanctuary, which became unclean when the priest sinned.
Top

Congregation

If the Congregation of Israel, that is to say the entire community, sinned unknowingly, they were to bring a young bull to be sacrificed. The elders of the community were to place their hands upon the bull's head to transfer the sin of the community and then the priest would perform the sacrifice. The blood was sprinkled before the vail seven times, placed on the horns of the altar of incense, and poured by the altar of burnt sacrifices. Following the protocol of the priests' sin offering, the fat, kidney, and caul were to be burned, while the flesh and skin were to be carried to the clean place.
Top

Rulers & Kings

If a king or ruler of Israel committed a sin unknowingly, he was to bring a young, male goat without blemish. The blood of this offering was placed on the horns of the altar for burnt offerings, and beside the same altar. As with most sacrifices, the ruler was to place his hand on the goat's head to transfer the sin. God commands that the fat be burned in accordance with the fat burning instructions of the peace offering.
Top

The Common Man

Commoners who sinned could bring a young female goat or a young female lamb; regardless, the sacrifice was to be without blemish. The sinner was to place their hand on the sacrifice's head, then the sacrifice was performed. Blood was placed on the horns of the altar and beside the altar, and the fat of the animal was burned on the altar.
Top

Trespass Offerings

God lists several examples for what constitutes the need for a trespass offering. One such reason was failure to tell something seen or heard while under oath. The person lying (or omitting the truth) was to bear the iniquity of the sin, too. Similarly, touching something that was is defined as unclean by God made the toucher unclean as well; this included touching man's uncleanness (bodily emissions like blood or semen). Failure to uphold an oath whether good or bad is another reason for trespass offerings. Breaking promises and vows is a very important matter to God, this is visible throughout the Bible and manifests in us. Everyone hates when people break their promises; often this act is seen as betrayal. Here, God was reminding the Israelites (and now us) to think before they jumped into promises and oaths. While taking an evil oath was clearly a bad thing that God would not condone, failure to keep the evil oath meant the oath taker was a liar and not a man/woman of their word, which was also bad. If someone committed one of these infractions, they were to take a trespass offering to God.

God provided three options for this offering in order to accommodate the poor. The initial requirement was a young female from the flock (lamb or goat). If the person could not bring something of the flock, they were then required to bring two turtledoves or two pigeons. In this instance one bird was to be a sin offering, and the other a burnt offering. If the person was unable to do either of these, they could bring the tenth part of a ephah of fine flour. Since it was a sin offering, they were no to place oil or frankincense. Similar to the meat or grain offering, the priest was permitted to keep the leftovers of the flour.s
Top

References

  1. Holman Bible Publishers. The Holman KJV Study Bible. pg. 178. 2014

Post a Comment

About

Author Image Author Image I love reading the Word of God. With prayer God's Word reveals so much: from comfort to temperance, from perspective to affirmation. Digging into the depths of the Word, cross-referencing history, language and time differences, is a passion of mine. In March of 2015 I decided to go back through the Bible doing an in depth study on each section I read. Eventually I decided to share my journal of notes as I partake in this journey. I hope you are blessed by God and inspired to pursue a deeper relationship with Him. I love reading and learning about God, nature, and science. I am interested in how it all connects. The Creator's fingerprints are all over his creation. We can learn so much about Him and how we came to be by exploring the world around us. Join me as I explore the world and draw closer to the One who created it all.
Distributed by Gooyaabi Templates | Designed by OddThemes